The Serbian Exodus Through Albania I THE GREAT WAR – Week 71

If you’re watching this in 2015, you are
no doubt aware of the refugee crisis that’s being going on throughout the year, but you
might not be aware that it is history repeating itself, for 100 years ago, another population,
another nation, was forced to flee its land from the horrors of war. I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War. Last week a British army in Mesopotamia had
attacked the Ottomans at Ctesiphon, but were forced to retreat down river to Kut, followed
by an army many times their size. The Italians had made small gains on the Isonzo at a heavy
cost, while the Serbs were being driven from their lands by three invading armies. The
Northeast had settled down for the winter, and in the west there was action in the skies.
Here’s what followed. The Italian front was cooling off after several
weeks of action. The Fourth battle of the Isonzo River came
to an end this week. It had been raging since November 10th, but since that was only a week
after the Third Battle of the Isonzo River ended, they had been at for pretty much seven
weeks solid. The weather had cleared up in late November and the fighting had reached
its greatest intensity, but on December 4th, the snows returned and fighting sputtered
to a halt on the entire line. The two armies began to settle down for the winter with heavy
snows in the Alps and bitter winds on the Corso. Casualties for the battle were intentionally
disguised at the time, but the official postwar numbers are around 50,000 for the Italians
and 30,000 for the Austro-Hungarians. Let’s be clear, though, just because the
battle had ended, the fighting and dying didn’t. The artillery would still roar, aircraft and
snipers would still harass infantry, and patrols would go out all the time into the bitter
snows to keep watch on the other side. And both sides were busy tunneling under the rock
and even placing explosives to cause strategic avalanches. So the slaughter never really
came to an end. And slaughter was a good word to describe
much of the recent action in the Balkans. Austro-Hungarian, German, and Bulgarian forces,
over half a million strong, had invaded Serbia early last month, and though the Serbs and
their French allies had fought bravely, the battle for Serbia was over. In fact, the Serbs
had only one option really open to them at this point, to retreat to some territory where
the enemy could not follow, and thus keep their army intact. The path into the mountains
of Montenegro and Albania lay open, but there were no railroads and not even a good road
for a wagon, so there was no way an army could make it as a whole. It would have to break
up into smaller groups, each taking separate trails. There was no food supply, and starvation
seemed a likely outcome for the Serbian army, which still totaled 200,000 men, and the mountains
were by this time of year covered in deep snow. The Battle of Kosovo Plain was the final battle
before the retreat. Ammunition had been stockpiled, the oxen who pulled the heavy equipment were
set free; they couldn’t follow into the mountains. Kosovo Plain is forty miles long
and ten miles wide, and it was a fitting scene for the Serbs last stand, for it was There
that Lazar, the last of the medieval Serbian Tsars, ruler of an empire that spanned most
of the Balkans, had lost his nation in 1389. The battle there in late November was fierce,
bloody beyond belief, and several days long, but the end was predictable and it soon came. On November 28th, 1915, German headquarters
issued a report that with the flight of the remnants of the Serbian army into the mountains
“our great operations is the Balkans are brought to a close. Our object, to effect
communications with Bulgaria and the Turkish Empire, has been accomplished.” By now,
trains were running from Berlin to Constantinople, and Germany withdrew most German forces from
the Balkans, leaving the Bulgarians to deal with Macedonia and the Austrians to deal with
Montenegro. But you know what? It wasn’t just the Serbian
army that was in flight, it was an entire nation, and on the retreat from Kosovo Plain,
the army caught up with the fleeing general population. Winter came early that year, and
many of the mountain passes and trails were already choked with snow, and the slopes were
lashed by storms. Old women and children fell and died by the roadside, mothers with their
babies would seek shelter from the winds and snows behind rocks only to starve. Here’s
a firsthand description- one of the few- of the retreat from American United Press correspondent
William G. Shepherd (Story of the Great war), “The entire world must prepare to shudder
when all that is happening on the Albanian refugee trails finally comes to light. The
horrors of the flight of the hapless Serbian people are growing with the arrival here of
each new contingent from the devastated district… nearly the whole route… 90 miles… is lined
with human corpses and the carcasses of horses and mules dead of starvation, while thousands
of old men, women, and children are lying on the rocks… hungry and exhausted, awaiting
the end.” There was also another hazard. Though Albania
had officially declared itself for the Entente and offered to help the Serbs, many Albanian
tribesmen who had suffered at Serbian hands in the Balkan Wars attacked the column of
refugees and killed hundreds of them. A thing about Albania and Montenegro here,
both of which had been attacked or had cities occupied at times during the war. Montenegro had joined the Entente and declared
was on both Germany and Austria-Hungary in August 1914. Albania’s situation was much
trickier. The Principality of Albania was only established in February 1914, but the
southern part of the country, Epirote, which was ethnically Greek, was granted autonomy
under nominal control of Albanian ruler Prince William in June, just a month before the war
broke out. In just the few months before the war there had been riots, a planned coup against
William by his Chief Minister Essad Pasha, and in general it was a real mess. When war broke out Austria-Hungary demanded
that Albania furnish troops for the Imperial Army, but William said no since Albania was
neutral. Warlords and local tribal chieftains took control of chunks of northern and central
Albania, the Greeks in the south seized control and William fled the country in September
1914. Troops from both Greece and Italy occupied Albania that fall, though Italy stated in
December that they were just helping maintain neutrality. Serbia and Montenegro also soon
occupied parts of the country and it was basically anarchy in large parts of Albania. When the
Serbs now came through in their retreat, they were eventually followed by Austro-German
forces who would become the new occupiers of Albania, but that’s still in the future,
so we’ll worry about that when we get there, but basically, nobody at all respected Albania’s
neutrality. So winter was really coming on everywhere,
even further south at Gallipoli. On November 27th, A vicious thunderstorm swept
through and drowned over 100 Allied troops. Following the thunderstorm came two days of
blizzards, with another 100 men freezing to death. 12,000 men at Suvla were treated for
exposure, and the cold particularly affected the Australian and Indian troops. Evacuation
was inevitable, since the men could not survive the winter there as things stood, the question
was, “when?” Gallipoli had been a stalemate for months,
and the western front for over a year, and now the Eastern Front was as well, at least
temporarily. The ground was now too frozen to dig into
quickly, so if you made an advance you couldn’t protect it from counter attacks. Still, one
interesting thing happened this week over there, on November 28th, the German 82nd Divisional
staff were surprised and taken prisoner by the Russians near Pinsk. Two generals were
captured. And one more note to round out the week: On December 1st, Baron Sidney Sonnino, former
Italian Prime Minister and current Minister of Foreign affairs, announced in the Chamber
of Deputies that Italy had formally entered the agreement with Russia, France, Great Britain,
and later Japan, that none of them would conclude a separate peace with any of their enemies. And the week ends, with a battle ending for
the Italians, the Russians surprising the Germans, and people freezing to death and
drowning at Gallipoli. And starving and freezing to death in the
mountains of Albania. And what of those who survived? Those who made it through the mountains,
what of them? The despair must have been unimaginable, then as now, as much of a nation- an entire
people- become refugees, driven from their land by war, and in the Serbian case walking
to a future that at this point was one of impenetrable blackness. World War 1 brought unimaginable suffering
for the civilians on all fronts. Back in winter we talked about the fate of the refugees on the Western Front and you can check that out right here: Our Patreon supporter of the week is Michael
Speed (what a great name!) – thanks to Michaels contribution on Patreon we improved our digital
map and our animations. If you want to help our show, support us on Patreon. Don’t forget to subscribe and see you next

Maurice Vega

100 Responses

  1. "From the middle of December
    1915, using 250 ships, Italy evacuated 260,895 Serbian soldiers and refu-
    gees from Albania. On another 100 ships 300,000 tons of food and pro-
    visions were transported. Transferred to safety were also 24,000 Serb-
    ian prisoners of war, 10,153 horses, 68 cannons and other war materials.
    Two hundred and forty-eight water crossings were conducted." "This maritime operation can be compared with what occurred during World War II at Dunkirk in northern France between May 25 and June 3, 1940" Honor to the Royal Italian Navy."

  2. "Ту на дну где шкољке уморан сан хвата
    И на мртве алге тресетница пада
    Лежи гробље храбрих, лежи брат до брата
    Прометеји наде, апостоли јада"

    "There at the bottom where seashells are gripped by tired sleep
    And peat falls on the dead algae
    Lay graveyard of the brave, lay brother next to brother
    Prometheuses of hope, Apostles of misery"

  3. There are more north African "Economic Refugees"  than ' War Refugees" from the middle east, don't kid yourself.

  4. I am from northern Albania (Tropoje) where a lot of these 'gorrila' fighters/attacks came from. Although Serbia, Greece, Montenegro etc. have caused nothing but suffering for our people I do have sympathy for all fronts and history has proven that even long lasting enemies such as European countries can come together for the greater good I too hope that the Balkans one day join together and put our history behind us and not allow it to fuel the hatred for one another! I a descendent of many fighting factions from northern Albania, push for future success to us all and not allow religion or past fueds to split us apart! It was a cooperation of the 30,000 Albanians who pushed back the Ottomans for over 20 years and if supported by the rest of Europe would have set the pathway for all of us to combign under one banner as we all come from the same origins/biefs and ssperated by our cultures/traditions.
    May the Balkans live in piece and find methods to abolish this hatred!

  5. It is really bad that after Serbians occupied a lot of northern Albania they had to seek refuge in the very same part which they're initial conquest most probably caused a lot of deaths to the Albanians locals. For the few attacks which tribal leaders committed against refugee soldiers ( the same which they fought previously ) it is understandable but eventually the refugees had refuge in Albania and to think that now neither of the peoples can identify this and still have hate to each other is really stupid

  6. I few hours ago I made a very harsh comment about how you do not represent the history of the balkans which isnt your fault at all. You dont live there to hear the stories, you dont speak the languege, the historians there are… shady to say the least and a lot of the history is lost, rewritten or forgotten and even small portions which everyone knows they are true are left simply because they cant be proven anymore. A bit more sober now I'm ready to disscuss the question.

    What I want to talk about is the relationship between serbia and bulgaria(and really serbs and the people of the balkans).

    While I cant and I dont want to deny the serbia heroism during the great war I want to say that the actions of the serbs as a nation during the 19th and the 20th are… idiotic. They are very prideful and nationalistic.

    An example of that could be found when we tried to liberate ourselves from the ottoman empire. Even when the local population was misstreated so badly, even when such a bloody rebelion happened(whole villiges slaughered and burned just because someone suppies a few rebels hiding somewhere close by) everyone everyone the serbs refused to work with bulgarians.

    Serbia had the idea of united balkans under the serbian flag and were willing to do anything to make it happen, including misstreatment of anyone who didnt say he was serb when asked "What are you?" Ofcourse I cannot prove this as mostly only old stories are lef and a few documents concerning albanians on serbian ground. What we have also is recent history. Outside of the normal nationalists and skin heads we can take a look at modern day macedonia or particularly at the tale of a bulgarian prisoner there. A person who gets beat up and tortured almost daily just because he is bulgarian. One time when he asked why would other prisonera do this one of them answered: it is something our fathers and grandfathers did.

    If you want an example of this type of racism from serbia just go through the comments and look for to who the word Tatar is aimed at.

    The fight(because it really was a fight and not a war) between bulgarians and serbians werent just for territories, but for the rights of bulgarians living there.

    Another mistake on your part was when you quoted a book, which by your words you got from a flea market. The particular quote is the one about bulgarians burning villiges even though most of macedonia was still inhabbitated by bulgarians and the border teritories had also bulgarians living in them.

    I just dont like your double standard about serbia. I havent heard you mention their nationalism or the way they treated anyone who wasnt a serb, which is the point of this series, the way humans lived what they had to suffer during the great war.

    Ofcourse I can just be some nationalist spouting nonsense and lies and ofcourse you simply could not listen to me and this is perfectly fine.

    What I can do however is ask you to mention all of this when you feel is the right time and to stop painting serbia as the small innocent country unjustly attacked by all sides, because they knew what can happen if they didnt give what they promised to bulgaria and that happened.

    It is funny that the serbian decision about macedonia, a decission made between a few small and relativly insignificant countries had such a big impact on the world.

  7. Albanian leadership at the time declared that ' no Albanian should take advantage of the Serbian people taking refuge inside it's borders in any way. Financially , Violently , Discriminatingly ..etc.. A Human act to shelter a whole Nation on the march. Shows the caring Albanian people.

    A pity that Serbs have led the way in European Islamic Hatred since WW2 and before , all because of a Battle they lost on Kosovo 'Battle' field in the 1300's , a time known as 'The Fall of the Serbian Empire' , and again in the 1400's in (round 2) they were crushed and steamrolled over by Ottoman influence from then on. And decent modern Albania is targeted , also the most fair , Bosnia & Hercegovina  by a 700 year old hatred of the old empire , by the Serbs . Losing Kosovo on those two ancient battles and officially in 2008 to it's own Kosovar legend! (p.s. , There are more Ancient Croatian communities in 'Kosovo' than Serbian)

    Respect to Albania , for doing the right thing for fellow ''humans'' in Serbia's  darkest hour…

    Respect to the UCK (KLA) for bravely fighting the Neo Cetniks in Kosovo , and taking another Province off the Greater Serb map …. I can't remember it being smaller 😛

  8. lollll i can get enough of this !
    i musta re watched this a dozen times,
    specially while they talk about the Albanians attacking serbs while they were on there refuge lmao!bahahaha

  9. Slavic invasion on the balcans. The result of it today is Serbia,Croatia, Slovenia.Bosnia,
    and that on Illyrian territory.
    Serbs were also trying to depict Albanians as Asians or relatives to turkish people LOL
    greetings from an Illyrian

  10. There's a high chance (70-80%) that my ancestors – the Northern Tribesmen were involved in all that during that time.
    I hail from the Kelmendi tribe and this tribe is one of the largest and most important along with Kastrati, Hoti and Shkreli.

  11. Aaron Idstein! That how great this channel is, it showed at the approval til now
    114= AGAINST
    5= PRO
    As you can see:
    that's what you get as a result

  12. Ma siptari su veliki heroji sta vam je. HAHAHAHAAHHA. Ubicu se. Nisu postojali do 1912 a sad kenjaju kako su spasili Balkan od Turaka. Covek da se prekrstii levom i desnom rukom. Oni su seljacki narod arnauti, svaki narod kada ih je okupirao oni su uzeli njihovu veru. Kukavice nevidjene

  13. Always forgotten! But historically proven. The Serbians took mor than 130.000 Austrian Prisoners of War with them. More than 100.000 died on this forced march, nobody was interested to heltp them to survive.

  14. What I don't understand is how nations like Serbia didn't get that if you kill only hatred and revenge will be formed. Instead of learning of what happened back in in world war 1 they again launch a war in 1999 and the bosnian war in 1992-1995. Why can't Serbians be gratefull to live with us in Balkan together? It's a well known fact that Slavs migrated well after Alexander the Great and the formation of the Byzantine Empire with the Illyrian Emperors. Stop following your goverment blindly and recognize that Albania always had to deal with invading nations. Serbia is just one of the nations that took our territory you are nothing special.

  15. no comparason….or did i miss the part about serbian rape gangs in sweden…?….mabee at home in the 90's….but not in ww1 was there EVER a problem with serbs…..exept gavrillo….the naughty boy….but then he was bosnian serb…lol.

  16. In every historical video about Serbs, there are tons of nationalist Albanians in the comments correcting history and hating on the Serbs. Why tho?

  17. Serbs are trolling on Croatia and Albania themed videos so much that comments are disabled.It would be fair to close this comment section too.

  18. Interesting how Serbia has problem with all it's neighbours…Maybe they should stop provoking other peoples and then they wouldn't get revenge served on them.

  19. Sta ovaj sere,pa sto nekaze zasto smo privremeno okupirali pogranicne delove Albanije!i da smo pomagali finasijski i u oruzju Esad pasu!

  20. hear in serbia we have one song taom daleko there far about serbian muving to greace and we have theorem niko nezna sta su muke teske dok nepredje albaniju peske pr nobudy no what are
    difficult to handle whiel do not cross albanio one foots

  21. while the serbs were moving threw montenegro 6 000 montenegrians with old guns defeted more than 25 000 austrohungarians that was the biggest battle of montenegro ever in the first world war 😀

  22. Lazar did not lost his nation in 1389, he only lost his life. Serbia fell 70 years after battle of Kosovo, 1459.

  23. my grandma told me what she heard from one of her uncles who retreated over Albania: the Albanians poinsoned the water wells, so you couldn't drink.
    him and his brother were then brought to Korfu, but were walking skeletons. they didn't recognize each other, it was the doctors who compared their last names and thought they were family.
    also, i think i heard somewhere that the serbian army also took the boys from age 15 with them, knowing that in a few years they would be of fighting age.

    however, knowing the Serbian mindset, i don't think that despair was the main emotion. i think tiredness and spite were.

  24. Znali su srbi da bjegunova majka nije zaplakala kad je bilo stani pani bijeg put pod noge cilj je bio juxni pol ali zajeba gi bre more. Bila je to bjezanija srpski navodni heroja

  25. Just a heads up Lazar was never a tsar only a prince, and his country was a shadow of the former serbian empire, after the battle of kosovo serbia continued existing but only as a vassal to the ottoman empire, serbia finally fell after the siege of smederevo

  26. Nope. In 1389. Serbia didnt lose battle. Both armies suffered enormous losses. The key thing is that turkish army didnt advance after that or expand/won another Serb territory. Many years it was considered that Serbia lost most of its army but in the same year Bulgarians tried to exploit situation but they were reppeled twice. Also,in historic sources from that period such as letters from city/states to one another indicates that none of them is celebrating otomans victory or mentioning battle as such. Apparently it was "status quo". The first sources that brings "otomans victory" are 200 years older than battle. So read books more:)

  27. I imagine tractors were very expensive and cumbersome in 1914. They seem to keep following their great military tradition of constantly retreating and then celebrating their loss. Then rewriting their history to claim the battle as a victory.

  28. Serbia didn't fall in 1389, it fell, "officially" in 1459 (fall of the Serbian Despotate in 1459, after siege of Belgrade). But even after that there were still some traces of Serbian rule here and there, the last one being in 1521/26 by Jovan Nenad. And some parts where Serbs lived were never under the Turks (high peaks of Montenegro for example, or Dubrovnik). Also, this isn't relative that relative to the story but Serbs were never 500 years under the Turks, because from 1521 to 1804 there isn't 500 years.

  29. In southern Albania was there not greeks! There is Albanians in northen greek (Chameria), there have always been Albanians in Chameria and not Greeks in southern Albania

  30. Thank's for seing the tryth from real history,not modern US globalost history.
    Respect for you and you'r work from Serbia.
    Respect to Grece&Russia from Serbian brothers.

  31. Vecna slava mom pradedi Atanasiju Todorovicu koji je prezivio eksodus…trebamo biti ponosni na pradedove i diciti se nasom istorijom…

  32. Hundreds of thousands of Albanians were killed, expelled and assimilated during the Ottoman/Balkan Wars by Serbs and Montenegrins.
    What else would the Northern Albanians do? Welcome them with food, water and shelter?
    Save the bullshit for yourself, everyone who hates Albania.

  33. I am albanian from kosovo, but i hate both serbs and albanians. I am not proud of being albanian. Serbs usually kills children, women and old people. Albanians don't do this but they are very aggresive and ignorant except me.

  34. So if us Albanians closed the border for the Serbian army and population to exist then a Serbia right now could possibly not exist no offense serve but if this is true then you kinda have to thank us for letting you in

  35. One thing is historically and logically clear, Albania is not a Serbian land, and never will be. Serbians should invade another country, not Albania. Otherwise they will regret.

  36. My great uncle fought in the war as a British tanker and he’s tank exploded and landed in a mortar hole filled with muddy water when he woke up to seeing his guts floating in the water. Years later my grandfather went to see him in the hospital when my great uncle was 50, he went to seem him because my great grandfather thought he was going to die. He loves till he was 98.

  37. You didn’t mention that 2 years before these events, Serbia killed 100,000 Albanian civilians in an attempt to ethnically cleanse their newly acquired lands. Serbs are cruel.

  38. My great grandfather was actually a guard for the king of serbia at that time and he told my father stories about that time and we still have his sword and medals

  39. My great grandfather, who was 16 at the time, crossed Albania, went to France and returned to Serbia in the 1920's. His father had died on Corfu in 1916.
    Slava im!

  40. Car Lazar didnt lost battle in 1389,thats a lie from Vienna-Berlin congres.I have read otomans chronologists who deataily describe Battle in Kosovo 1389,and they saying that the Ottomans lose that day because they fled Serbia and came back again in 1457.Check it by yourself,dont believe in AH school of lies!

  41. I have one story. When serbs fought turks,turks are wining the battle and then one serbian trumpeter sneaked in the back of Ottoman army and then he played turk song for retreating. Turks all confused becasue they are winning battle,they started retreating,the the trumpeter comes back to the serbs,and played song foe rush. Serbia won that battle becasue of thah trumpeter. He is later awarded.

  42. What he failed to mention and brushed aside was:

    Massacres of Albanians in the Balkan Wars

    By Serbian army

    That happened in Albania Kosovo Vilayet in 1912-1913

    Over 20000 people where killed men women and children

    That’s what the Serbian army was doing killing women and children sick people

    So what goes around comes around Austria Hungary plus Bulgarian army’s smashing the Serbs deservedly so then Mother Nature making them suffer beyond believe in hard conditions with the Albanian tribesman getting that sweet revenge

    Justice was done

    You kill innocent people and got the same medicine back

  43. When did you learn that south of Albania is Ethnically Greek. Dude it’s all of Greece ethnicly Albanians. Have you ever read about Arvanites “native greks” who speak old Albanians and modern greks don’t understand a single word of Arvanites, while Albanians speak with Arvanites with no problem in albanian. Modern so called “greeks” are ethnically turks who converted in orthodox. Have you ever seen in your life a blod greek? You can’t even se a racial differences betwen a turk and an greek.

  44. Not many are aware of the sacrifices that the Serbians made during World War 1. It was said that every other male died as a result of the war and retreat. Nearly 8 million Serbs perished. Once the Serbian army recuperated in Greece, they launched one of the greatest counter strikes the Balkans had ever seen, finally taking back what was theirs.

  45. We were taught that it was never supposed to be a retreat through Albanian mountains. It should have been a straight line alongside Macedonia's Vardar river. At the time, Bulgaria and Serbia were still not enemies. Only because Bulgaria's forces pushed westward into Serbia and Macedonia were the Serbian forces pressed into the mountains of Albania. It should also be noted that Montenegrin army held firm and halted the Austro-hungarian pursuing forces from catching up to the columns of Serbia's soldiers and civilians.


  47. I don’t know where do you get the statistics of claiming that southern Albania is inhabited by Greeks!!! In a population of over 1 million inhabitants in southern Albania there are between 30.000-40.000 Greeks. Whom aren’t autochthonous of that region. They were brought in XVIII century by albanian landlords as workers for albanian landlords lands. Being myself from south Albania. My grandfather is originated from an albanian land called Suli land of great warriors that gave Greece so many heroes and independence but great powers granted that to Greece. I know you as a outsider can’t know every detail. I’m not blaming you. I know that isn’t made purposely. I’m telling just to straight up facts and not misinforming the viewers of this channel. Thank you for your very informative videos though. Two thumbs up. ? ?

  48. Why italians didnt land on albania or montenegro to help serbians as the anglo french did in sallonica? It would be too easy and obvious since their front was stationed.

  49. It's surprising that the Albanians allowed Serbs to enter at all during the winter, given that just a few years before that Serbs massacred 30,000 Albanians in Dibra and Kosova just for changing the statistics.
    It seems to me that we did that intentionally knowing very well, that few to none would survive .
    This is probably the darkest thing I've ever heard about my people and simultaneously the most desperate thing I've ever heard the Serbian people choose to do .
    I can't imagine how bad the war was for Serbs to opt for this route to 'salvation'.
    At the same time I can see how desperate Albanians were of maintaining 'neutrality' as basically there were over 20 changes of regime in a few years and each had massive consequences in terms of death and devastation and lost of trust or belief for anything positive.
    The Balkans has always been bloody but It's not hard to say that most of these games were played by Russia, Turkey and the Western countries that wished for dominance over the region while overtaking countries that were desperate for a stop to what was happening , It was often that Serbs believed Russia cared about Serbs, and on the other hand Albanians literally tried allying with everyone with no positive results other than massacres and bloodshed .

  50. That's very cool that Michael made the contributions he did to help the channel in such a significant way. As a still avid re-watcher, thank you Michael!

  51. What a joke is this. Which exodus you mean. I hope you know that the slavs came from caucasian region in Balkan 800 After Jesus. The albanians are autochthon in his Region with larg and old history. The bulgarians,serbs, all slavic people came from Russia to get more Land and For door to the middle ocean and murdered 100thausands of albanian people

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