Lawrence Lessig: The unstoppable walk to political reform


So a chip, a poet and a boy. It’s just about 20 years ago, June 1994, when Intel announced that there was a flaw at the core of their Pentium chip. Deep in the code of the SRT algorithm to calculate intermediate quotients necessary for iterative floating points of divisions — I don’t know what that means, but
it’s what it says on Wikipedia — there was a flaw and an error that meant that there was a certain probability that the result of the calculation would be an error, and the probability was one out of every 360 billion calculations. So Intel said your average spreadsheet would be flawed once every 27,000 years. They didn’t think it was significant, but there was an outrage in the community. The community, the techies, said, this flaw has to be addressed. They were not going to stand by quietly as Intel gave them these chips. So there was a revolution across the world. People marched to demand — okay, not really exactly like that — but they rose up and they demanded that Intel fix the flaw. And Intel set aside 475 million dollars to fund the replacement of millions of chips to fix the flaw. So billions of dollars in our society was spent to address a problem which would come once out of every 360 billion calculations. Number two, a poet. This is Martin Niemöller. You’re familiar with his poetry. Around the height of the Nazi period, he started repeating the verse, “First they came for the communists, and I did nothing, did not speak out because I was not a communist. Then they came for the socialists. Then they came for the trade unions. Then they came for the Jews. And then they came for me. But there was no one left to speak for me.” Now, Niemöller is offering a certain kind of insight. This is an insight at the core of intelligence. We could call it cluefulness. It’s a certain kind of test: Can you recognize an underlying threat and respond? Can you save yourself or save your kind? Turns out ants are pretty good at this. Cows, not so much. So can you see the pattern? Can you see a pattern and then recognize and do something about it? Number two. Number three, a boy. This is my friend Aaron Swartz. He’s Tim’s friend. He’s friends of many of you in this audience, and seven years ago, Aaron came to me with a question. It was just before I was going
to give my first TED Talk. I was so proud. I was telling him about my talk, “Laws that choke creativity.” And Aaron looked at me and was a little impatient, and he said, “So how are you ever going to solve the problems you’re talking about? Copyright policy, Internet policy, how are you ever going to address those problems so long as there’s this fundamental corruption in the way our government works?” So I was a little put off by this. He wasn’t sharing in my celebration. And I said to him, “You know, Aaron, it’s not my field, not my field.” He said, “You mean as an
academic, it’s not your field?” I said, “Yeah, as an academic, it’s not my field.” He said, “What about as a citizen? As a citizen.” Now, this is the way Aaron was. He didn’t tell. He asked questions. But his questions spoke as clearly as my four-year-old’s hug. He was saying to me, “You’ve got to get a clue. You have got to get a clue, because there is a flaw at the core of the operating system of this democracy, and it’s not a flaw every one out of 360 billion times our democracy tries to make a decision. It is every time, every single important issue. We’ve got to end the bovinity of this political society. We’ve got to adopt, it turns out, the word is fourmi-formatic attitude — that’s what the Internet tells me the word is — the ant’s appreciative attitude that gets us to recognize this flaw, save our kind and save our demos. Now if you know Aaron Swartz, you know that we lost him just over a year ago. It was about six weeks before I gave my TED Talk, and I was so grateful to Chris that he asked me to give this TED Talk, not because I had the chance to talk to you, although that was great, but because it pulled me out
of an extraordinary depression. I couldn’t begin to describe the sadness. Because I had to focus. I had to focus on, what was I going to say to you? It saved me. But after the buzz, the excitement, the power that comes from this community, I began to yearn for a less sterile, less academic way to address these issues, the issues that I was talking about. We’d begun to focus on New Hampshire as a target for this political movement, because the primary in New Hampshire is so incredibly important. It was a group called the New Hampshire Rebellion that was beginning to talk about, how would we make this issue of this corruption central in 2016? But it was another soul that caught my imagination, a woman named Doris Haddock, aka Granny D. On January 1, 1999, 15 years ago, at the age of 88, Granny D started a walk. She started in Los Angeles and began to walk to Washington, D.C. with a single sign on her chest that said, “campaign finance reform.” Eighteen months later, at the age of 90, she arrived in Washington
with hundreds following her, including many congressmen
who had gotten in a car and driven out about a mile outside of the city to walk in with her. (Laughter) Now, I don’t have 13 months to walk across the country. I’ve got three kids who hate to walk, and a wife who, it turns out, still hates when I’m not there for mysterious reasons, so this was not an option, but the question I asked, could we remix Granny D a bit? What about a walk not of 3,200 miles but of 185 miles across New Hampshire in January? So on January 11, the anniversary of Aaron’s death, we began a walk that ended on January 24th, the day that Granny D was born. A total of 200 people joined us across this walk, as we went from the very top to the
very bottom of New Hampshire talking about this issue. And what was astonishing to me, something I completely did not expect to find, was the passion and anger that there was among everyone
that we talked to about this issue. We had found in a poll that 96 percent of Americans believe it important to reduce the influence of money in politics. Now politicians and pundits tell you, there’s nothing we can do about this issue, Americans don’t care about it, but the reason for that is that 91 percent of Americans think there’s nothing that can
be done about this issue. And it’s this gap between 96 and 91 that explains our politics of resignation. I mean, after all, at least 96 percent of us wish we could fly like Superman, but because at least 91 percent
of us believe we can’t, we don’t leap off of tall buildings every time we have that urge. That’s because we accept our limits, and so too with this reform. But when you give people the sense of hope, you begin to thaw that
absolute sense of impossibility. As Harvey Milk said, if you give ’em hope, you give ’em a chance, a way to think about how this change is possible. Hope. And hope is the one thing that we, Aaron’s friends, failed him with, because we let him lose that sense of hope. I loved that boy like I love my son. But we failed him. And I love my country, and I’m not going to fail that. I’m not going to fail that. That sense of hope, we’re going to hold, and we’re going to fight for, however impossible this battle looks. What’s next? Well, we started with this march with 200 people, and next year, there will be 1,000 on different routes that march in the month of January and meet in Concord to celebrate this cause, and then in 2016, before the primary, there will be 10,000 who march across that state, meeting in Concord to celebrate this cause. And as we have marched, people around the country have begun to say, “Can we do the same thing in our state?” So we’ve started a platform called G.D. Walkers, that is, Granny D walkers, and Granny D walkers across the country will be marching for this reform. Number one. Number two, on this march, one of the founders of Thunderclap, David Cascino, was with us, and he said, “Well what can we do?” And so they developed a platform, which we are announcing today, that allows us to pull together voters who are committed to this idea of reform. Regardless of where you are, in New Hampshire or outside of New Hampshire, you can sign up and directly be informed where the candidates are on this issue so you can decide who to vote for as a function of which is going to make this possibility real. And then finally number three, the hardest. We’re in the age of the Super PAC. Indeed yesterday, Merriam announced that Merriam-Webster will have Super PAC as a word. It is now an official word in the dictionary. So on May 1, aka May Day, we’re going to try an experiment. We’re going to try a launching of what we can think of as a Super PAC to end all Super PACs. And the basic way this works is this. For the last year, we have been working with analysts and political experts to calculate, how much would it cost to win enough votes in the United States Congress to make fundamental reform possible? What is that number? Half a billion? A billion? What is that number? And then whatever that number is, we are going to kickstart, sort of, because you can’t use KickStarter for political work, but anyway, kickstart, sort of, first a bottom-up campaign where people will make small dollar commitments contingent on reaching very ambitious goals, and when those goals have been reached, we will turn to the large dollar contributors, to get them to contribute to make it possible for us to run the kind of Super PAC necessary to win this issue, to change the way money influences politics, so that on November 8, which I discovered yesterday is the day that Aaron would have been 30 years old, on November 8, we will celebrate 218 representatives in the House and 60 Senators in the United States Senate who have committed to this idea of fundamental reform. So last night, we heard about wishes. Here’s my wish. May one. May the ideals of one boy unite one nation behind one critical idea that we are one people, we are the people who were promised a government, a government that was promised to be dependent upon the people alone, the people, who, as Madison told us, meant not the rich more than the poor. May one. And then may you, may you join this movement, not because you’re a politician, not because you’re an expert, not because this is your field, but because if you are, you are a citizen. Aaron asked me that. Now I’ve asked you. Thank you very much. (Applause)

Maurice Vega

100 Responses

  1. Look, the problem is power.  As long as politicians have lots of power, they will tend to be corrupted, and money will find its way to them either in the open or under cover, either directly or indirectly, either immediately or far in the future.  There is no way to stop this, just as nature abhors a vacuum.  The only way to reduce the influence of money on politics is to reduce the amount of power we give to politicians.  The Constitution used to do that.  But the people let the politicians get too much leeway in interpreting it.  As long as we the people do not understand and value the Constitution, politicians will have too much power, and the rich will buy unjust influence from them.

  2. Wolf-Pac
    As a European, who has proper working democracy, I know wolf-pac has the exact right ideas on how to fix this. Getting behind wolf-pac and at least spreading the word, that wolf-pac is the way, is the least you can do. Please do it.

    www.wolf-pac.com
    www.wolf-pac.com

    www.wolf-pac.com

    Get behind this now, its the way to get this thing sorted out. It is the way.

    www.wolf-pac.com

  3. +77MAG, yes there is a problem with Disability, especially down here in South Florida. Mostly by illegal aliens and people just getting out of prison. But I am truly disabled from a horrific accident on I-95, and live with chronic pain. Because of this, I am not able to exercise, so I have gained quite a bit of weight. I also take a couple of medications that lend to obesity. I paid into a Disability almost all my life, surely all my adult life. So please, stop with putting everyone on Disability and heavy in the same box! Sorry for the rant:-)

  4. Corporations are NOT people, nor is campaign donations their 'free speech!   wolf-pac.com   You can sign the petition, volunteer to call your state representatives.  The ball is starting to roll.

  5. i from Canada and i feel like the election in usa affect my life as much as the election in my country  

  6. Like the scene from History of the World part 1 where the Roman Senate all collectively yell "Fuck the Poor". Thats how we see politics in america.

  7. So silly really, that we need something "trendy" to get a fire burning for things that matter. I think it is because we are all so comfortable in our lives.

    But in 1776 there was a country full of people THAT WERE OUTRAGED about even A SINGLE CASE of rights violation.

    And people think that "modern people are more educated" than they were 200 years ago?

    I don't. I think we are clueless on the BASIC THINGS that are important.

    We need to raise the "rights IQ" of the public. Start with your family, your kids, your spouses, perhaps your siblings or parents. Teach them what rights are, discuss examples where their rights are violated.

  8. I wish you the best success Laurence and will never stand in the way of good and noble intentions. But I will no longer personally be active in trying to make the cancer of government something "I can live with".
    Government is a disease and the corruption is but a symptom. Cancer must be excised or killed completely to free one of it's symptoms.

  9. All events…from the quantum to the cosmic, are negotiations.

    One unit "draws a line in the sand", another crosses that line.  Then the second unit does the same, and the first unit crosses that line.  On it goes, til one or the other fails to cross the line.  The first one to do so, loses.

    Those willing to do violence will always outpace those unwilling.  That's not to say violence is the answer…often it's completely illogical.  But, those willing to do violence will always cross enough lines to win.

    Take terrorists, for example.  They will NEVER go away.  And like it or not, the only way people fail to live in fear of them is because everyone's convinced they'll never be a target.  Anyone that feels they might be a target?  Well, the terrorists have gotten what they wanted…so why should they stop?

    There is another issue.  Mental illness.  A lot of the reason for our problems is just largely due to the prevalence of undiagnosed mental illness (of which religion is a universal symptom), and also the failure to acknowledge low maximum cognitive capacity as a disorder.  Some refuse to think critically, others are simply incapable.  Those who refuse should be incarcerated, those who cannot should be treated for their condition as best as we're able.

    But frankly, until you can remove all forms of mental deficiency and malfunction, there will ALWAYS be those who conclude that violence will work better for them.  And those who conclude that violence should be avoided at any cost, will prove them right, time and again.

  10. There's a problem with the comparison in this issue. When it comes to math on a computer chip…there's only one set of dynamics. Is the answer correct, or is it incorrect. It's a binary problem.

    Politics is not a binary problem. The needs of one individual are not the needs of another. The political viewpoints of a candidate and the political viewpoints of a voter will never mesh, all the way down the line, 100%.

    We need to fix the system, but it will never be…easy. We aren't one people. We can't be one people. We will never all, completely, agree. We are not the borg. We are not a hivemind.

  11. For freedom of corruption without violence, the action must come from the few within government who fight against it. The landed classes can care less of the actions of those below them, no matter how large the movement is. They have wealth, and wealth is power. Without resistance, they can use that power to wipe you away. Non-violent protest has always worked against Civil Injustice, but not as well in the economic department.

  12. So, I'm pretty new to this subject and I have heard of Aaron Swartz at some point in time. Could someone explain what is the trying to be accomplished and/or what Swartz was trying to do hacking into MIT

  13. Great intention and direction.  "fly like superman" comparison..very poorly chosen.  Political Reform is very doable…flying like superman isn't

  14. Super-Pacs are going to run up against a new force, a mature social media. SPs will continue to be effective over the short run because they have expertise in politics and people still watch Fox News and CNN. But that number is shrinking and advertising dollars will generate diminishing returns. 

  15. I'm not sure asking for money to fund a political movement to remove money from politics really strikes at the heart of the problem.

    In order to instigate REAL and lasting reform, and indeed to remove any system or organisation or institution naturally and completely, all you need to do is present an alternative that is better in every way, and for everyone. The rest will take care of itself, and complete change is inevitable.

    Stop walking and start imagining that alternative.

  16. What is his super pac to end all super pacs?? the young terks are doing the same thing with the wolf-pac and movetoamend.org is doing something very similar also. How many more groups are out there? Start teaming up and let's do this

  17. Floating point division was done by reciprocal approximation & mulitplication, hence the iterative floating point division.

  18. My thoughts exactly…….WAKE UP AMERICA! Your democracy is gone! When it dawns on you that this is the case, it will be too late!

  19. This corruption has always been with us.
    It may be bred into our brains to submit to those we think are stronger and in charge if and when they give off certain cues or press certain buttons in us.
    We are not in the image of what we think is God … since God does not exist in the classical sense, the people who make their own laws are God, and that means God is a corrupt SOB.  We have to train people to be citizens and instead we have trained them to be slugs … and now we find our country is the weaker for it, so we import and pay off non-slugs from overseas who corrupt our system even more.  Where do we even start to get handle on this so that people can see and agree on anything?

  20. There's a system of transparent working in groups on any issue. Everyone has a reputation and during collaboration leaves feedback – building in this way reputation. It's just like sites pop up in google's top results. So in any current moment there's a person who responds to an issue according to her reputation – so we don't need any artificial politician system.
    Leaders are totally transparent and every single step of budget can be seen and tracked too.
    Simple social net with reputation mechanism based on principles of search engine – PR http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PageRank.
    It's like a church – they lied untill sience didn't proove who they are (I mean times of bonfires and "witches"). Heretics tried to fight but only sience solved the problem.

  21. you guys need to collaborate with anyone who has, or is working toward a similar pac. in this we could do more working together than seperately. i know wolf-pac.com is trying to do the same. TEAM UP!

  22. Funny aint it. It's easy to write these ideas off as just somebody wanting to screw some money out of people – Asking for funding, to end "funding" in politics.
    This shows how corrupt such a political system is, when your first thought of someone wanting to end corruption, is that they too are corrupt.
    When you can't recognise the cavalry, you're surrounded by the enemy.

  23. Funny that you publish this TED days after the supreme court suspends funding limits for political campaigns.  The irony is that this is easily the most influential case this year and it was barely covered.

    shaun mccutcheon v. fec

  24. Wish you the best in this endeavor Mr. Lessig. 

    The Citizen's United and McCutcheon resolutions by the Supreme Court attest to how deep the control of big money is in the USA and how detached are the governmental institutions from the common citizen.

    The only way to annul these resolutions that give control of the USA government to billionaires is to ammend the US Constitution and that is a big task indeed.  Koch brothers, bankers and the like will fight you to the end.

  25. The flaw at the core of the system in a democracy, which the United States is not, but rather a constitutional republic which employs democratic processes, but also the flaw exists in America, is the government is no longer consented to by the people.  The people don't even know what the government is anymore.  Presidential candidates have no clue what they will actually do before they take office because none of them actually have any knowledge of what the government's goals are in virtually every meaningful aspect.  Before wikileaks, we didn't even know we were being spied on.

    So I ask, how can you possibly consent to a government institution that won't even define it's own objectives or aims, nor reveal its constitutive member organizations even exist?  The social contract is dead.  I consent to government?  What is government?  You cannot even define it for me.  It's like pointing at an iceberg and assuming all its constitutive parts are only that which is above the surface of the water.

  26. Lessig is aware of Wolf-pac, which is a move to get the states to ratify an amendment to overturn citizens united.  i don't understand why he is not promoting this.  trying to influence the congress is futile.  you must have an amendment from the people which bypasses all of the federal representatives And the supreme court.  this is the only way. 
    Wolf-pac.com     go there.

  27. Money in politics is a problem, but the greater problem is our voting system that forces us to vote for bought off candidates just so the guy who we hate most won't win. If Lawrence is serious about ending corruption and the money primary, the least he can do is bring attention an Oregon initiative that would create a new primary not based on money. Right now Mark Frohnmayer is petitioning for an initiative that would replace partisan primaries with one unified primary that uses approval voting. Any voter can give EACH candidate an up or down vote and the two candidates with the most up votes go onto the general. This initiative would stop vote splitting, allow voters to vote for their favorite candidate with no penalty, and provide accountability.

    The biggest problem with money in politics is that candidates think they need it to win. Money doesn't make much difference beyond a certain point. With this primary, it will open the door for smaller parties and single issue parties that can get a certain amount of money and represent a broad range of candidates that support their issues. It will make elections more issue based than candidate based. If your issue is getting money out of politics, you can have a Get Money out of Politics party in which members will pledge support and give up votes to all candidates that support getting money out of politics.

  28. What it all comes down to, whatever political change you wish  to support, is you sign up by e-mail, phone etc. and then you are hounded to death for money 'for the cause'.  Irony.  

  29. Taking money out of politics doesn't take power out of politics, it just takes the means of people who aren't professional power mongers from having any power at all.

    Government, media, and lawyers will rule even more than they are now. And that's why some people are so anxious for it – they don't like uppity Makers contesting the power of the entrenched Takers.

  30. You're not targeting the root of the issue.
    Campaign donations from special interest groups are a symptom of a greater problem. They are given because the government has power to create laws that benefit those special interests. (No power to give farm subsidies? No farmers will lobby for them.) As long as government has that power, special interest groups will try to lobby for favours.
    If you take the power away from government, there will be nothing to lobby for, therefore no campaign donation.

  31. Lawrence Lessig: The unstoppable walk to political reform…
    An interesting speech from +Lawrence Lessig

  32. Ok so Aaron Swartz asked what to do with 'corrupted system'. Than he died. Then Lessig got depressed and decided to do something to stop being depressed. Then he gathered some people and went for a walk. Then he made this TED speech about protesting and changing politics.
    I have little problem with all that. Exactly what systematic change is proposed here? I don't hear any.
     

  33. There is a bigger problem that he completely ignored, which is "who is going to make the reform happen, what will the reforms be and how will they manifest?" Because regardless of whether his idea works or not, there is still no guarantee that anything will change because the people in power won't be changed, their PR people will change.

  34. How people spend THEIR money is none of our business. If you really want to rid the us of political corruption, don't allow those with no skin in the game (non tax-payers) a vote. If you don't participate, you don't get to play. Within one election cycle, there would be no need for money buying elections and people too stupid to make it on their own wouldn't be able to negate those who know how.

  35. We need to pass the 28th amendment to the constitution that says money isn't speech and corporations are not people. Wolf-Pac.com

  36. Reading between the lines; give us the power, give us your guns, give us the money to fix the problem, etc. Until he acknowledges the threat of our "permanent political class", he can provide no real solutions.

  37. Does anyone know where this poll is. I'm trying to find it as a source, but he doesn't list it anywhere in the speech.

  38. With all due respect. Here is some food for thought: Should we limit the amount of time or miles Grandma D can walk? Or should we limit how many minutes or hours a person can picket a cause? Because the amount of time (or health) a person has to walk is just as finite as how much money a person has. 

    Perhaps the answer is allow PEOPLE do whatever they want (spend money, walk, picket, stuff envelopes etc) and limit groups of people that are not SPECIFICALLY formed for political causes (unions and corporations)?

  39. Only have political contributions directly from people to Candidates and limited to $2,500, No PAC's, No Corporations, and No Unions. We can all agree on this as all are tweaked a bit, so no money from the NRA, the Teachers Union or any other entity. Period.

  40. I've seen and been educating people  on this core/vital/fundamental issue since 2004 — and suggest that you simplify the "Ask". A good first step is to get people into a database (mobile phone numbers) of citizens who are ready to help. I'm happy to be on the list. Now I will rewatch the video to see how I can be involved.  Beware, not sure how many other people will rewatch messages to clarify the action that has been requested. Thank you for using your platform for this vital good!

  41. What am I missing? He said billions of dollars was spent by Intel, when it looks like it was a half a billion dollars.

  42. I simpathise with what he said, but not with the solution. It looks to me like all this is going to create is another political party, and it will soon turn into another clog in the wheel.
    To me, the solution would be an all out "no vote". If on election day they add no votes. They would have no way to justify: parliament, senators, parties, goverment (as is) all together. All that, would just be big white buildings with nothing in them. Buildings that belong to the people. And it forced them to reform into a system that would really serve us, instead of serving themselves. I know this is (probably) impossible, and many believe we would have anarqy…but, when all else fails why not try the less obvious.
    If we have the power to strike (and not work) when we are unsatisfied with our empoyer/company, why not use the same power (no vote) when we are unsatisfied with our goverment?

  43. I'm against super-pacs donating to pols just as I am against unions giving millions to candidates to garnish favors.Why do we never hear about union funding for pols in the same breath? 

  44. One option would be to regulate the airwaves. The airwaves are a public resource that we should control. They are required to show a public service purpose.

    One option would be to require television and radio to provide time for political advertising and to restrict the amount of time that money can purchase. This could be done within the current legal framework.

    This would level the playing field without needing to restrict political fundraising. Once that is done we could work on regulating political fundraising.

  45. I can't get behind this issue. Benjamin Tillman was one of the early supporters of "campaign finance reform" he was also an outspoken white supremacist. This is the signature issue of John McCain. Do I need to continue? The reason these laws don't work is that they end up helping incumbents and hindering challengers.

    Politics is corruption, money is the symptom not the cause.

  46. What we should really focus on is the corruption that happens AFTER a politician is elected. Backroom deals, handouts, subsidies, pork, lobbyists, etc. 

    This is where the real issue is in politics and we're failing to address it. You can't buy an election but you can buy a politician*

    *But they can only get away with it if the people aren't paying attention. Once the people catch on and actually care, they can make all the changes that they need, not even in the next election cycle, but through recalls and other peaceful means. 

  47. The flaw in our political system is the campaign itself, and everything associated with the campaign. Not just the pandering to Corporations, but the placating to special interest like the Teaparty, and the AARP!

  48. Sounds much like Wolf Pack and amending the constitution to take money out of politics. State level politicians have the power to change the constitution

  49. Methinks some paid trolls have posted below.  Other than the few people who want to undercut democratic values of one person-one vote and equality, who thinks bribery in politics is a good thing?  Excessive money in elections, often paid to both parties to get people elected who will support an industry's goal,  is bribery. 

  50. what if the 91/96% are right and politics are a losing game – it's rigged. Better find other ways to change the world.

  51. Screw democracy. Democracy is forcing the minority to bend to the will of the majority. It is mob rule. Death to democracy. Take back the democratically ran constitutional republic.

  52. Seventy-one people who watched this video would rather keep US citizens disinterested, divided, and distracted.

  53. I think this confuses cause and effect, money buys everything including power. There can be no democracy with extreme wealth inequality.

  54. Regarless of your political stripes EVERYONE should be on board with LL's message. I would love to hear the counterpoint to this from the billionaires who control this country.

  55. To 77mag: do you know that those eleven million undocumented,that are here illegally are actually more desirable workers for employers.the reason being is they are more control friendly,as they have no rights they easy to manipulate ,and easy to enslave.they buy the jobs by giving kick back( cash money )

  56. They buy the jobs by giving payback to the management,foreman that hire them.I have been there working amongst them.you can't compete with people that are greasing the fore men's hand.unless you are willing to give away a big percentage of your after tax money.border patrol and agency's in charge are purposely under staffed.people that are here illegally and commite crimes are supposed to be picked up from jail and deported,I'm sorry removed from this country.what is happening tho is when police

  57. What is happening is they don't get deported,becouse when already in custody ice does not have the resources to pick them up,so the police are forced to release them.its also hard to compete with people that are used to making sixty dollars per week in their country so I guess they don't mind paying kick back to the people that hire them.

  58. This is easy to understand "congress" which is AIPAC wants a division between Russia and the American nation, Putin & Obama are unable to fend off the aggression against America and Russia. Americans are dominated by congress and congress belongs to AIPAC. The same situation exist in ISRAEL, the mirror image of confusion and divisions:  Palestinians, Iran and terrorism. Some call it the economical holocaust industry, which is link to arms deals and wars, something that Americans have experience from Vietnam to today Ukraine. so you both leaders of the world understand the problem "the Israeli economical holocaust ideology, is simple to perceive" what the brave soldiers and army air force and diplomats can do" probably not much; only the majority of the American citizens can do something when they themselves understand what is AIPAC who they are and what is their AIM. Discern between Jews and those that have Jewish names and have create a private main media propaganda banking and industrial conglomerate. «Some call it the holocaust economical industry and many are employers of this project, from bankers to religious leaders, politician’s congressmen philosopher’s actors and movie directors, investors and arms dealers. Discern between the correct way to act and the propaganda way to act. Understand the alternative media. And reflect. Until them is austerity, wars and economically intellectually and sexual decline worldwide..!! .

  59. This is easy to understand "congress" which is AIPAC wants a division between Russia & CHINA  & EUROPE: and the American nation, Putin & Obama are unable to fend off the aggression against America and Russia. Americans are dominated by congress and congress belongs to AIPAC. The same situation exist in ISRAEL, the mirror image of confusion and divisions:  Palestinians, Iran and terrorism. Some call it the economical holocaust industry, which is link to arms deals and wars, something that Americans have experience from Vietnam to today Ukraine. so you both leaders of the world understand the problem "the Israeli economical holocaust ideology, is simple to perceive" what the brave soldiers and army air force and diplomats can do" probably not much; only the majority of the American citizens can do something when they themselves understand what is AIPAC who they are and what is their AIM. Discern between Jews and those that have Jewish names and have create a private main media propaganda banking and industrial conglomerate. «Some call it the holocaust economical industry and many are employers of this project, from bankers to religious leaders, politician’s congressmen philosopher’s actors and movie directors, investors and arms dealers. Discern between the correct way to act and the propaganda way to act. Understand the alternative media. And reflect. Until them is austerity, wars and economically intellectually and sexual decline worldwide..!! .

  60. Quote from Marcus Tullius Cicero

    "A nation can survive its fools, and even the ambitious. But it cannot survive treason from within. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and carries his banner openly. But the traitor moves amongst those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the alleys, heard in the very halls of government itself. For the traitor appears not a traitor; he speaks in accents familiar to his victims, and he wears their face and their arguments, he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation, he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of the city, he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist. A murderer is less to fear. The traitor is the plague."

    http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2013-06-03/full-list-2013s-bilderberg-attendees

    The Full List Of 2013's Bilderberg Attendees

  61. Lessig's explanation of his attendance at Bilderberg meeting is utter nonsense…example:

    http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2013-06-03/full-list-2013s-bilderberg-attendees

    A meeting in June in Europe of the Bilderberg Group – an informal club of leading politicians, businessmen and thinkers chaired by Mr Davignon – could also "improve understanding" on future action, in the same way it helped create the euro in the 1990s, he said.

    "When we were having debates on the euro, people [at Bilderberg events] could explain why it was worth taking risks and the others, for whom the formal policy was not to believe in it, were not obliged not to listen and had to stand up and come up with real arguments."

    https://euobserver.com/political/27778

    Attendees of Bilderberg are violating The Logan Act states, in part: “Any citizen of the United States, wherever he may be, who, without authority of the United States, directly or indirectly commences or carries on any correspondence or intercourse with any foreign government or any officer or agent thereof, with intent to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign government or of any officer or agent thereof, in relation to any disputes or controversies with the United States, or to defeat the measures of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both.”

  62. Marcus Agius Senior Bilderberg Member – 
    Who is Marcus Agius?
    Marcus Agius, the chairman of Barclays Bank, has resigned as the row intensified over the Libor rate-fixing scandal. Here, we take a closer look at his CV.

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/9368632/Who-is-Marcus-Agius.html

  63. Lessig serves on the Board of the AXA Research Fund –

    Bilderberg members: Who's going to the 2015 secret summit?

    Castries, Henri de Chairman and CEO, AXA Group FRA

    Henri de Castries might just be the most powerful man in the world. He is chief executive and chairman of one of the world’s biggest insurers, Axa, and a member of France’s illustrious noble house of Castries. But De Castries is also chairman of the Bilderberg group, a collection of political and business leaders from Europe and North America that meets in private every year to debate “megatrends and major issues facing the world”

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/11659892/Bilderberg-members-2015-Whos-going-to-this-years-secret-summit.html

  64. Why does this page claim "Standard YouTube License" (full copyright)? I highly doubt the founder of Creative Commons has deviated from his standard practice of using CC BY. Please correct this if possible.

  65. Education should be about educating instead it's become all about making huge profits. For pennies on the dollar (using online servers) we could educate the masses but that is not the goal. The goal of these universities is making profits at the cost is enslaving students with unforgivable student debt. 2 trillion dollars to be exact. Like Aaron said knowledge is power. Christ shared the Toro with everybody and Aaron wanted to share education. Both died far before their time. RIP Aaron!

  66. Notice this guy is an "academic" – i.e. a tax supported self serving left indoctrinating un-american elitist.

    This guy is bad! He wants to repeal the 1st Amendment.

  67. No, it's not "interesting" it's disgusting – a tax supported American who wants to abolish free speech and doesn't understand that freedom is property rights and that includes money.

  68. Here's something for the conservatives and Real Americans who despair over hearing crap like this, as follows:

    Freedom is a poetic term for property rights.

    Therefore there are only TWO KINDS OF LAWS:

    – those that protect property rights,

    – and those that attack property rights.

    People who contribute money to politics are try to Buy Protection from govt attacks on their property.

  69. Pure feelings… it would be nice if it lasted longer. I still didn't hear how campaigns would happen without money, because just saying "reduce the influence of money" isn't saying much or clarifying much.

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