India’s Geography Problem


This video was made possible by Squarespace. Build your web presence for 10% by
going to squarespace.com/Wendover. India is a bit of an anomaly on the world
stage. It’s a massive 1.2 billion person strong
country stretching thousands of miles tall and thousands of miles wide with one of the
most sizable economies in the world, but it was
never really destined to be a country… at least not in
its current form. Modern India looks like this. To the north-east the country is shielded
by the formidable Himalayas. This mountain range is nearly impenetrable
even for a modern army. China and India
have fought a few small skirmishes over border disputes in the region, but a full-scale land
invasion from either across the Himalayas would be difficult. China has control over Tibet—a
vast region lacking the infrastructure necessary for quick troop movement—while India remains
politically close with Bhutan and Nepal—two nations sandwiched between India and China. Largely because of this enormous mountain
range, India historically has not had many relations
with China—the other superpower of the region. Contact between the two countries today
remains cold due to their border disputes. Both countries claim this entire area and
every few years the dispute escalates—a dangerous
situation between two nuclear powers. You can’t even
drive from India to China due to this—there are no border crossings between them—but
for most there’s little reason to cross the border
as the two countries are vastly different culturally. As
mentioned, due to the mountain range they didn’t have much contact historically so
they each developed into what they are today independently. India’s longest border is with the ocean. Ocean borders are a bit of a double edged
sword. The ocean allows civilizations like India
fairly simple access to the world, but it also isolates. Some countries, like the UK, used oceans both
to grow their global power while also benefiting from the relative protection they give. Any military invading by water is at a significant
disadvantage to those defending so ocean borders were and still are a source of geographical
protection. India is also relatively isolated in distance
to other powerful countries so a defensive navy was never really necessary because the
country was never significantly threatened by sea. By water, they’re over 800 miles to the
Persian Gulf, about a two day boat journey, over 1,700
miles to Singapore, a four day boat journey, and nearly 3,500 miles to Hong Kong, over
a week’s boat journey. In fact, by boat, they’re really just as
close to the significant cities of eastern Asia
as Perth, Australia. Many of the other powerful countries of the
world developed into what they are today because of their proximity to other
centers of power. In Europe, if Portugal invented
something it would quickly spread to Spain, France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and all
the other nearby countries while India had to
go through its whole process of technological and
cultural innovation largely independently. India did have navies through history, but
they were never world-class and they never used them
to conquer lands far away. It was never their priority
as the leaders had their hands full already keeping their massive territory together. They also
didn’t have the need to colonize far-away lands as India itself really had all the resources
they needed. The UK, France, and Spain colonized partially
because they had large, developed populations within small areas lacking enough
natural resources to advance their country’s power. India was a highly developed and powerful
country historically and it just didn’t have the
need to go outside its region. This is part of the reason why India is so
culturally unique but it also may have put them at a disadvantage through
their historical development as they were not
exposed to some of the technological advancements of other civilizations far away. India’s north-west border is really the
problematic one. Back in the 19th and early 20th
century, India was ruled as a colony of the British Empire, but before the British came,
India was not truly a country but rather a loose collective
of regional powers. For example, in the 16th
century someone from this area would have never called themselves Indian—they were
Bahmani. With the British, this entire area was brought
under the rule of one central government that reported to the British crown. This entire area, with nearly a thousand different
languages, hundreds of different ethnic groups, and six
different major religions was grouped into the one
crown colony. Unsurprisingly, the British rule didn’t
last for long. After World War Two, the
nearly bankrupt crown folded to pressure and decided to give up the now unprofitable territory,
but the way they went about leaving the sub-continent has had far-reaching consequences. Many
of those in charge of the transition were followers of a theory that stated that the
diverse people of India were singularly differentiated by
their religion—not their ethnicity, language, or any
other commonality. The idea was that within India there were
two nations in the same territory— the Hindu one and the Muslim one. So, in what they believed was a step that
would reduce violence, those in power split the country
into two—India and Pakistan. The idea was that
Pakistan would be the country for Muslims, while India would be the country for Hindus. Over
the months following the partition, tens of millions of people crossed the border to settle
in the country for their religion and in the ensuing
violence up to a million people died. This whole plan was destined to fail. Pakistan was given land with few resources
and it was a country split in two. East Pakistan was separated from the capital
in West Pakistan by nearly 1,000 miles of hostile territory. To think that the two parts could exist as
one country would be absurd and, unsurprisingly, east
Pakistan eventually revolted and became an independent Bangladesh in 1971. India and Pakistan have been at odds almost
continuously since their partition. They have fought countless times and it’s
now almost engrained in culture for Indians to hate Pakistanis and vice versa. This is far from surprising given that the
two countries were created through concentrating the two
groups that were already at odds, but from an Indian
perspective, the border with Pakistan is a problem because it just looks like this. It’s open, flat,
and relatively sparsely populated compared to the Pakistani side largely because of this—the
Thar desert. The Thar desert pretty much ends right at
the border with Pakistan which means it’s easy for Pakistan to build up their military
infrastructure at the border while it’s hard for India. If
Pakistan invades India they would have to cross this desert which would be difficult,
but overall Pakistan has a greater advantage by having
a populated and inhabitable area on their side of the
border. This border is India’s greatest geographic
weakness and it has helped fuel the ongoing conflict. If there were a significant river or mountain
range or something in between these two countries, they might have been able to coexist,
but as of now, the India-Pakistan conflict seems
almost endless. As the two largest countries in the world
and neighbors, India is most commonly compared to China. In 1980 the two countries had nearly identical
GDP’s and over the past 50 years their populations have grown at similar
tremendous paces, but China has now taken the
lead as the more developed country with a GDP five times greater. But India’s economy is now
growing even faster than China’s. They’re benefiting hugely from one of the
greatest trends in business—outsourcing. Believe it or not, this success can even too
be loosely linked back to geography. The British came to India because of all the
natural resources it had, but their presence back then is part of the reason why
the economy is growing so fast today. There’s no
doubt that the British empire did a lot of bad to the country that has caused huge economic
damage, but during their reign English literacy got good and the country continues to excel
in the English language today. In fact, India is second only to the US in
number of English speakers at 125 million. Of course due to their enormous population
this is only 12% of their people, but businesses worldwide saw the opportunity presented
by a cheap labor market with such good english literacy. The first wave of outsourcing came as businesses
moved their accounting, human resource, and customer support operations
to India, but today India is benefiting from something different. India has become a major destination of software
development outsourcing as Indian developers can do much of the work
for a fraction of the cost of western workers. The
reason India is able to serve this industry is because the country has a lot of educated
people, but it also has a lot of uneducated people. India produces tons of really smart people,
but their educational system also lets many others fall
through the cracks. It’s an unequal system but it
means that the country has a big subset of its population that’s educated enough to
work medium-skilled jobs in English. This is unlike China which has a perhaps more
equal system that produces a huge population educated enough
to work low to medium skilled manufacturing jobs. Part of the reason India’s educational system
might be like this is because the country has
a lot of isolated rural areas. Transportation is very hard in this country
due to hostile terrain, lack of infrastructure, and a hugely dispersed
population. In fact, the entire country historically was
pretty much split into two by this hilly region halfway down the sub-continent. China, on the
other hand, benefits from a much more urbanized population which makes it easier to set up
a smaller number of better schools concentrated
in large cities. The urbanization level of a country
actually correlates very strongly with the quality of their educational system. All the least
urbanized countries like Chad, Afghanistan, and Burundi also have some of the lowest ranked
education systems. Of course correlation does not equal causation
since as a country develops economically it tends to urbanize, but it’s
doubtless that it’s easier to educate a population that’s
concentrated into large cities than spread out. Even the US hasn’t fully solved the problem
of how to educate a spread-out rural population
and there’s a huge disparity in quality of education
between big cities and small towns in America. Overall, in India, there are some great schools
in the cities, but the rural population is often
left behind with sub-par education. India is the country it is today because of
its geography. It inhabits an amazingly diverse
and resource rich area that has successfully been able to serve as home to well over a
billion people. The sub-continent developed into such a diverse
area because it’s always been hard to get around due to natural barriers and size. When the British came they tried to integrate
all the different nations into one country by building
up railway and road infrastructure, but still today
India is a country of nations. Much like the US they’ve created a federalized
government with different states each with a level of autonomy
acknowledging that a one-size-fits-all governance system can not work with so many people with
different ideals, issues, and wishes. The country
benefits hugely by having a favorable geography for agriculture which has allowed it to grow
into the second most populous in the world. Economically, its numbers are its assets. With so
many people, there has to be a good amount of highly educated people who can drive innovation,
serve as a workforce, and raise the development level for the entire country. As one of the fastest
growing economies in the world, the next ten to fifteen years will be crucial for India
and serve as a determination on whether it will be a
great developed superpower of the future or if it’s
destined to fail. If you own a business, run a YouTube channel,
or do anything else where you want people to find you, you really should have
a website and there’s no better place to build your
website than Squarespace. I have a Squarespace website for this channel
and my other, Half as Interesting, and they’re each the third
and second results in Google when you search each of the
channels. The internet is how people find you nowadays
so it’s so incredibly important that your web presence is functional, professional,
and useful. Squarespace lets you build a website that’s
all that without wasting any of your time with their super simple website builder, beautiful
customizable templates, and award-winning 24/7 customer support. You can even try out all of
that for free for 14 days by going to squarespace.com/Wendover. That same link will also get you
10% off your website. Squarespace makes this show possible and is
truly a great service so please do at least give them a shot over at
squarespace.com/Wendover.

Maurice Vega

100 Responses

  1. Before british india holded 28%worlds wealth. After british rule it became below 4%, and you says that the british united our nation… well done..😏😏. They made two contries and let it fight for whole lifetime.
    Come visite kerala one of the southernmost state of india, and view your own video once again.

  2. Oh god! They typed the Indian outsourced web developer mismatched the head and title tags. <head><title><title></heaf>

  3. India was doing way better before Mughal and British invasion. With immense knowledge of mathematics and science, India would have been totally different from what it's now.

  4. "During British period, english literacy got good"
    The British era education was limited only the "upper class" and that too because the British needed English speaking Indians to administer this vast Country.
    They taught us English for their own benefit. They gave us rails and roads to boost the commercial success of British crown. While the Indians were forced into poverty.
    The rampant corruption we see today can be attributed to the colonial legacy of British.
    Millions are dependent on agriculture in India cuz the British took away jobs of craftsmen by industrialization, and forced them to produce food to feed the vast army during the world wars.
    This led to the worst famine in the world in which atleast 12 million indian died of starvation.
    The "Pakistan" partition of India was a brainchild of Lord Mountbatten (then viceroy). Indian leaders never wanted to divide India into Hindus and Muslims territory.
    And then they left.
    The British left India with a literacy rate of 12%, life expectancy of 56 years, per capita income of 0.4 USD per day.
    That's true India wouldn't have been United if not for the British, but given the full picture of they actually did to India, I strongly wish they never came.
    They gave us measles, rubella, lactose alergy etc etc, cut down our forests, dig up our mines, killed thousands of tigers, treated us like an "inferior race",
    Raped our women, slaughtered Children who could potentially become kings of their kingdom(and hence expanded British territory), slavery and dishonesty is a legacy of British Empire.

  5. Why do channels show the weaker side of India and compare it with the developed side of china?
    It's not always about trains, airports and huge buildings. We have democracy we have freedom of speech, we can roam in our country freely, we are free people. Can the chinese do that? No google, no youtube, no facebook huh? Compare that. Now you would say its because chinese have developed their own version of it but what about their controlled media policy?

  6. Really British tried to unite country through railway & roads ..🖕🖕they build it to transport goods to fucki** England . They only killed millions of innocent people , divided & ruled . that's why our peoples fought for their freedom otherwise u will never go from here .but when u see there r no land left for us in India & also no money after world war then u stared talking about religion & partition .🤬🤬🤬🤬 madarchod British .

  7. Pakistan wa screated for muslim but India was born as Secular country, it was not for Hindus, why these European always simplify other's history…

  8. India should stay aware of the Western aggressors as they are always ready to prey on the Eastern countries.
    Many Western countries are ignorant and jealous of India, besides Pakistanis are busy in commenting against India on every video.
    I have disliked this video for its problematic words and judgements about India. Developing countries have hurdles to overcome but it is not something impossible. These Western countries always focus on the negative sides but avoid the positive one. India will keep growing until it is a superpower.
    I love India and hate Pakistan from Bangladesh.
    Long live India

  9. showing other countries:developed areas ,great infra-structure …
    showing India:Traffic,poor people,under developed areas!
    world really got something againt our growth-_-

  10. this is a painful video……and what saddens me is how people on the internvet just believe anything from random people who make well produced videos….he prodcued it well…and he had factual, and logical, inaccuracies and things that contradiced each other then………….side note…..ive played two videos and i can tell this guy is either anti india and pro china….or….he just sides with china more than india

  11. "Superpower by 2030" my ass. Anyone worth a damn is leaving the country and only lazy fucks are left behind. The current culture there of pushing responsibility off to others will doom them.

  12. The worst thing to happen to the subcontinent was the Partition of India caused by lawyers. Both Jinna and Ghandi were lawyers. Another reason to abolish lawyers.

  13. Funny video. Technologies spread on boats ? Your video was relevant for 10th century.
    Also, all the weaknesses sounded exactly like strengths of India. Tried too hard to make India look weak.

  14. 90% video is falsely claimed.
    Got the maps wrong
    Borders wrong
    Territory wrong
    History wrong
    Facts wrong
    Geography wrong
    Every single thing is wrong
    Just made a video named India for million views and monetization.
    You can do better but you didn't even tried.

  15. U R GIVING WRONG INFO AS INDIA IS NOT A 400 500 OLD CIVILISATION IT IS 5000 OLD CIVILIZATION IT WAS AS SO LARGE FROM OMAN TO VIETNAM .SO PLEASE FIRST EARN INFO.

  16. The Brits came to India in 1600 as traders . After the battle of Buxar in 1764, France was defeated and British became the undisputed ruler of India and ruled India till 1947. 😂 *Of course, the British didn't rule India for long*.
    Sea was never a problem for India. 😂 All European colonist came to India through sea

  17. 4:27 How can you say british rule didn't last for long? they ruled india for over two centuries because they were greedy of our richness and jealous of our prosperity.
    Don't say anything without any knowledge of India and it's majestic history

  18. South Indian Chola Dynasty had a powerful navy that was modern at its time and had influence far up to Japan covering entire south east Asian countries. It was modern and was quick in adapting home grown or foreign technologies into its naval power. check https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chola_Navy. Everything is relative to its time and period. Again at 4:07 India was faction or kingdoms AT the time of arrival of British, but it was unified under a single empire from Afghanistan to Burma, Kashmir to Kanyakumari multiple times in its history. As empires grew weak, powerful satraps raised and declared themselves as independent kings of their regions turned them into kingdoms.

  19. FAKE I LIVE IN INDIA UNSUSCRIBE HIM LIAR FAKE INFORMATION 😡😠😤🤬🤬🤬🤬🤬🤬🤬🤬🤬🤬🤬😡😡😡😡😡😡😡😡😡😡👿👿👿😈😈 AND DO NOT SUPPORT 🇨🇳 OR 🇵🇰 SUPPORT THE TIRANGA OR 🇮🇳!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  20. India had everything of british Systems roads technologies even mughal arctitechry Where pakistan was just piece of desert with few million ppl.

  21. Both the Islamic Caliphates & The British looted the country extorted high tax from people . Indians worked hard gave everything to them to survive these invaders.

  22. "unsurprisingliy the british rule didn't last for long" 1757 was when the British East India Company first started controlling parts of India and 1947 was when we were forced to give it up due to agreements between Churchill and Rosevelt, that's 200 years, much longer than the yanks have ponced off the rest of the world, earn your keep you yanky cunts, and learn what facts are.

  23. You fukin saying that British rule did not last for long, for your fukin information, british ruled for 200 damn years, one fo their longest term in the whole world, you fuckin stupid

  24. I am an Indian for generations, since 1026 AD, when my ancestors came to India and made their home …For more than 3,000 years India had been invaded from the North …they came and they became Indians …except the European: Portuguese, French and English …They looted the subcontinent to enrich their countries …India was never united except during the reign of Aurangzeb and due to that by the British …Sanskrit is a Northern Language from Ariana / Iran …old Persian is written from left to right …Present India is ruled by very stupid and almost deranged people … looking towards the WEST …destabizing neighbours …the only solution is to unite them all and make a ''Confederation'' of India …then she can emerge as a truly world power …

  25. This dummy obviously doesn’t understand modern strategy!!! IF China wanted to actually invade India (why????), it would not go through a mountain range. China would first take out India’s air defenses, hit the air bases and destroy India’s C3. China would invade from the sea supported by massive air support. What do you expect from a YouTube strategist who probably got his military education from Playboy magazine; another “wannabe.”

  26. India is a horrible country and it's people don't use toilets they just use the street. Also the Indian cricket team suck and Pakistan army is cooler

  27. Wrong description of india… India was United and had central power in past… Read history carefully before making video…

  28. As a Chinese, i dont think India become English speaking country can be regraded as one of the British Contributions to India.Take Israel for example, 70 years ago Hebrew only exist on historic paper, but once Jewish built they country they bring Hebrew back to life. Language is not just an tool for communications, and it can also be seen as a symbol of one country.

  29. After watching the previous video I thought this guy actually knows something but after watching this m like. . . Wtf is he talking about.

  30. No hate feelings towards any religion …
    But during the partition it wasn't just Hindus that India was formed for, the population of Muslims in India is more than Pakistan's entire population…
    On the other hand Pakistan was an islamic Republic only for Muslims

  31. British Invasion resulted in 21st century India's GDP growth rate.?
    British Integrated INDIA?
    Video maker is high on Drugs.
    India was richest country before British.

  32. The video very first started with comment, "never destine to be a country". Why not? Historically India was united many times since 500 BC and even before.

  33. I stopped watching at 6:37. Couldn't take it anymore. That's the stupidest thing I've heard in a while.
    If you wanna talk about another country, and that too, one so vast and diverse as India, spend more than a few days researching. Even if you research and study India for a month, you'll barely scratch the surface.

  34. At 10:43 British did not tried to unite the country instead they wanted to gain more territory. And all railways built only for taking raw materials from India to ports and move their military troups. If British not came to India it would be much developed than U S. because even U S also for from other developed nations but it grown .

  35. this country is gonna go through multiple crisises if does not take its exteme sewege problems mutch more seriously , it might also cause foreign policy problems wehn all this is getting into the oceans untreated further on

  36. It also has the highest percentage of registered prostitutes, 50% of the population eat rats, 80% bathe in cow urine and it is also the rape capital of the world oh and they are the new nazi's of the world.

  37. In any century, any region in India would identify themselves as 'bharat' ..
    Although not formally but culturally, psychologically and historically 'Bharat' always existed as a separate entity ..

  38. Because of 'English literacy' which was supposedly 'given' by english, we are able to earn back money looted by them from India.

  39. "…..and India prides itself in the fact that 1/3 of it's economy comes from using their computer and technology skills to scam Americans out of their hard earned money…."

  40. The southern peninsula has higher literacy & is culturally very different & more self-sustained. One of the reasons why National Political Parties fail in the south. No Prime Minister gave a damn about the South early enough to matter, even when Kerala was being washed out by floods. The South is Pristine & Proud. I donno whose idea was it to rule the South from a city like New Delhi thousands of miles away. We need Secession, so does the North-East. What is the point of trying to force us together when the Kashmir, South & North-East are frequently ignored thanks to Vote-Bank politics.

  41. I used to enjoy your videos but now that I came to this video about my country, I have started doubting the information given by you in other videos too. Now this video is poorly researched and almost english propaganda. Hey if you want to make a 'correct' video I could suggest some reading materials.

  42. Another silly video.  LOL.  When did you ever see even one time for any muslim Islamic terrorist country get along and be a true friend to any non-muslim neighbor?  Are you crazy?  Stop making idiotic videos.  Don't expect Pakistan to get along with anybody who is non-muslim.  I heard plenty of anti-non-muslim talk from Pakistanis, how they pretend to be your friend, but in real life they hate you and want you to turn muslim, or die.  You put heavy weapons on the border, and when Pakis blink an eye you blast them.  That's the only language they understand.  So … it is what it is.  OK?  OK.  India has problems, but mostly due to corruption.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post comment