Czechoslovakia – the Last Bastion of Democracy | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1935 Part 1 of 4

National self-determination is supposed to be what defines the New World Order after the Great War right? You know, like each national group having the freedom to govern themselves and decide their own futures but what happens when groups find themselves cut in half by new borders what happens when two of them claim the same region our losers of the Great War even allowed to decide their own future by 1935 the New Republic of Czechoslovakia is experiencing firsthand how lofty ideals of national self-determination? Are a lot more complicated in the real world? Nobody then yes, i’m indy neidell Welcome to between two wars a chronological summary of the interwar years covering all facets of life the uncertainty Hedonism and euphoria and ultimately humanity’s descent into the darkness of the Second World War Like many states across Europe Czechoslovakia would not have been possible in the 20s and 30s Without the Great War for centuries the Czech and Slovak lands were controlled respectively by the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary and then both by the austro-hungarian Empire from 1867 onward now most Czech nationalists always imagined national autonomy as possible within a federated realm the introduction of universal male suffrage in 1906 and the Austrian half of the Habsburg Empire meant that national minorities could Agitate for reform from within but the outbreak of war in 1914 changes all of this long-standing rousseff ilysm among the Czech and Slovak peoples galvanizes opposition to their rulers and the alliance between austria-hungary and Germany further alienates them slowly, but surely Opinion shifts towards seeing autonomy as possible only after the Central Powers are vanquished a narrative begins to emerge of the war as an epic struggle between Germans and Slavs so Nationalism is gaining ground But with austria-hungary suppressing political freedoms at home Nationalists are forced to operate from abroad and the man pulling them All together is Tomas Masaryk despite being a well respected public intellectual He has previously been a somewhat marginal figure in Czech politics his Czech Progressive Party only had one deputy Himself in the pre-war Imperial Council and his pro-western leanings have always gone against mainstream Merciful ism. In fact Massa reeks does not himself see the war as this epic struggle between Germans and Slavs He sees it as one of democracy versus theocracy and there is no doubt that Czech loyalties lie with Lady Liberty massarakhsh sees them drawn from the traditions of humanism religion and democracy Supposedly associated with 15th century, huh sight movement though his beliefs often center on check themes masa Rica is also a promoter of Czech and Slovak Unity. He was born in a border region to a mixed family he speaks a hybrid of the two languages and he’s already garnered a fair amount of Slovak slow to his cause So what is he doing for the cause of the Czech or rather Czech or Slovak nation? Well, he left Prague in December 1914 to gauge international opinion on the matter This earned him the ire of the Hapsburgs, and he was warned that he would face execution if he returned to his homeland Despite not really having any claim to legitimacy He declares the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris November 1915, though There is only one other actually elected politician alongside him massery does get representatives of Czech and Slovak organizations throughout Europe and North America to sign his manifesto and Working closely with him his IDI bard Bennish like Masaryk, he comes from an academic background though He doesn’t have nearly as much public Fame. He will however come to play a crucial role in Czechoslovakia tics massaraksh National Council do everything possible to champion the cause of Czechoslovakia, this mainly takes the form of persuading foreign countries that Czech and Slovak independence is in the best interest of The West talks are given and pamphlets are published declaring that with their innate inclination Towards democracy a free Czech and Slovak nation would serve as a bastion of Liberty in Central Europe guarding against Germanic militarism but even by 1918 an independent Czechoslovakia is not inevitable in January the British government announced that while they support the right to national self-determination they have no intention of dividing the territory of the central power sea with Communism on the rise after the Russian revolutions. The Allies are pretty reluctant to let the region balkanize into numerous weak states the public opinion in Europe and America looks approvingly a Czechoslovakia’s they fought bravely on the western eastern and Italian fronts as Czechoslovak legions still in the summer and autumn of 1918 the National Council is recognized as the Czechoslovak government in waiting by the Allied powers the Czechoslovak National Committee is set up by veteran politician calque remarks in July to organize the movement and ready an administration for the soon-to-be state Empowered now by clear domestic and international support Masaru drafts a Czechoslovak declaration of independence from Washington DC on October 18th It promises universal suffrage freedom of thought and expression gender equality and equal rights to national minorities later that month chromatic national committee passes its first law the independent Czechoslovakia has come into being Just a few days later crushed and Benesch meet in Geneva to thrash out who holds ultimate responsibility They decide that Masaryk will be President cry mouths premier and Benesch foreign minister so there we have it less than two weeks later austria-hungary collapses and Czechoslovakia is proclaimed via a provisional Constitution Masaryk Finally returns home again on December 20th as president Liberator It has been a mostly bloodless revolution in the midst of one of the bloodiest wars in history But Just because it came about relatively peacefully does not mean that it has guaranteed stability ethnic Germans have thrown their lot in with the newly proclaimed German, Austria political leaders set up rival administrative bodies and declared border areas to be autonomous regions within the Austrian Republic in Reaction Prague sends in its army to ensure. Peace Ironically borrowing repressive measures from the Austrian legal code that had been used to combat Slav nationalism Germans are prosecuted for draft evasion Espionage and the slandering of Czechoslovakia. Zhannar a siege mentality soon emerges in one instance the autonomous regional government in Bohemia orders that no Beer should be sold to the occupiers Things reach a head on March 4th Czechoslovakia, thora tees have blocked any involvement with elections in Austria in reaction German leaders call for a mass demonstration the day the Reich’s rot Is scheduled to convene? Tens of thousands of Germans attend demonstrations across the borderlands tensions inevitably mount and the day ends in tragedy as Czechoslovak troops fire on the massed protestors the bloodiest incident is at Kadena where a standoff between nearly 10,000 protesters and the army over the flying of the German flag Results in two minutes of indiscriminate machine gun fire from either side of the town square 22 people are shot and killed in that square all in all 54. Germans are killed and hundreds more are wounded But this is not the only border conflict taking place on the other side Hungarians are pretty unhappy about losing Slovakia Which they call upper Hungary? occupying it on the day of the Armistice with diplomatic assistance from France though and military assistance from Italy the Czechoslovak legions managed to force the Hungarians back across the border by mid-january Still another displeased group are poles who form a majority In the Silesian Duchy of tessen and want to join the new polish Republic While all this is going on vanish is working as chief negotiator at the Paris Peace Conference to secure Czechoslovakia sporters he even uses the tragic protests of March 4th to strengthen his position Claiming that they were initiated by Vienna and that with the border regions firmly in the hands of Czechoslovakia Germanic imperialism can be neutered the Commission on the Czechoslovak questions agrees Declaring that the separation of all areas inhabited by German Bohemians would not only expose Czechoslovakia to great dangers But equally create great Difficulties for the Germans themselves other territorial questions are settled in Paris and Bennish walks away victorious Pretty much all of his aims have been fulfilled and the borders of Czechoslovakia are now secure But neat lines on maps do not show the patchwork of ethnicities beneath them The largest demographic in this country is of course Czechs who number around 7 million people and then obviously there are the Slovaks who? approximately two million smaller groups of Hungarians poles ruthenians also add to the mix but Ethnic Germans the majority of whom are at the very least bitter that they are now ruled by a Slav majority number over three million and are the second largest demographic Despite the tension bubbling beneath the surface masa Rican Benesch continued to forge the Czechoslovak state a Permanent Constitution is approved by the provisional Assembly in February 1920 Parliamentary elections are held in April and the new National Assembly confirms Masaryk as president in May Throughout the 1920s. There is undeniably political stability though some might call it stasis Of course, like like friggin everywhere. There are threats from the extreme left and extreme, right? but these are actually relatively ineffectual here far more ominous is the continual Dissatisfaction of ethnic Germans who are increasingly coming to recognize themselves as sedate and Germans. This term has only just come into existence Previously, they would have thought of themselves as German Bohemians German Moravian or just Germans But the term is growing in popularity and German newspapers are promoting it to convey a sense of a unified national minority struggling against a Slav majority such illusions of victimhood make ideal breeding ground for Nazism the German National Socialist Party was established in Czechoslovakia in 1919 and is basically a carbon copy of its vimar German counterpart right down to the banners and uniforms This is not to say that all Germans in Czechoslovakia are foaming-at-the-mouth ultra nationalist in the 1920 elections the German Social Democrat Party gained 11 percent of the vote to become the second largest party in Parliament other parties like the German agrarian party the German Christian social People’s Party They also work with like-minded Czechs and Slovaks They all desire autonomy But they seek it within the framework of the Czechoslovak state and such political participation is promising In fact German politicians even produced two cabinet ministers in 1926 sue Dayton Germans now have people representing them in the halls power and on the international stage Benesch is doing everything he can to keep Czechoslovakia secure in 1921 he crashed the little ant on between Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia to guard against Hungarian Raavan schism together these countries achieve a sort of great power status in international diplomacy at the same time Venice has been Normalizing relations with Poland attempting to move beyond the tension that emerged during both Republic’s establishment He also fosters close ties with France But is careful not to let his country fall into any real block making Czechoslovakia a model member of the League of Nations things are still pretty tense with Germany though the Treaty of Locarno in 1925 results in Germany recognizing its western borders as permanent Not its eastern ones Chancellor Gustav. Stresemann has effectively refused to recognize the German Czechoslovakia, but Benesch does manage to get an arbitration treaty signed between the two countries and also gains assurances of military aid from France in the event of German invasion and so in the latter half of the 1920s Things are looking pretty good. The mineral rich lands escape significant war damage while also inheriting the bulk of austria-hungary industrial capacity Farmland across the country is also fertile by by 1929 industrial production exceeds pre-war levels by 40% and agriculture has grown by 28% and the healthy economy allows for an Impressive record on social welfare legislation for sickness and accident insurance is passed in 1924 With some pretty generous provisions and liberal pension laws are passed in 1926 But like everywhere else The worldwide depression will catch up with Czechoslovakia and trigger widespread unrest by 1932 foreign trade has virtually collapsed and there is crisis in credit and Agriculture consumption and standards of living are falling while unemployment is rising the is forced to cut back on spending Radical moods are on the rise hunger marches and strikes are increasing and the far left and far right are growing in strength Czechoslovakia has managed to cling to the Democratic traditions That have been central to its establishment and a large part of this is thanks to mass Eric as president Liberator He has been a unifying force projecting stability while nations all around are fallen to authoritarian regimes But even his presence is unable to ward off the specter of German nationalism So farm sedate ins have voted overwhelmingly for democratic parties But the Sudetenland has been walloped by the depression and this along with Hitler’s rise in Germany Means that resentment is rising Patriotic educational cultural and sport organizations are set up and Germans are moving further and further to wards the nationalist Right in 1932 membership of the recently established folk sport the Czech version of the SA surges from 5000 to 40,000 emboldened they marched through su Dayton’s streets belting out the Nazi anthem the Horst vessel song Czech authorities Once again adopt repressive measures in July 1933 the National Assembly passes a law banning newspapers dangerous to the state and in October another law authorizes the suppression of subversive political parties the German national social party is dissolved along with the less outwardly Nazi, but still pretty nationalistic German national party a New organization has been established by Konrad Henlein Previously an obscure gymnastic instructor called the SU Dayton German Patriotic Front members of the band parties join, hen lines organisation in droves now his relationship to Nazism is Admittedly a little complicated his own priorities seem to lie more with sedate Germans rather than anything explicitly pan Germany’s in some speeches He even talks of check-ins to Dayton reconciliation provided the in justices against the letter are righted so as not to appear Too subversive. He often has to affirm his commitment to liberal democracy This is though not much more than a veneer and his fascist sympathies are somewhat obvious he relies on focused themes often talking of a full Gemeinschaft and styles himself as a sedate and Fuhrer and while this strength of the German nationalists is growing the health of the president liberator is slowly weakening Narrowly surviving a stroke in May 1934 mas’r reeks entire left side is paralyzed He resolves to seek reelection once his term ends But only so that he can name Benesch as his successor But new parliamentary elections are coming up in May 1935 and Henlein is a clear threat He renames his growing party the SU datin german party and campaigns fiercely some politicians See the danger and ask Masaryk to authorize a ban of the party But the president is reluctant believing Henline will become more moderate upon entering Parliament if he knew where Henlein is getting his money from He might not have been so cautious with some difficulty and in circumstance is not entirely clear Henlein has secured funding from Nazi Germany itself and this money no doubt contributes towards his stunning success the election reveals just how radicalized the German population has become in the short space of five years ten lines party gets 66% of the German vote that’s 15 point 2 percent of the nationwide vote with 44 seats They are now the largest party in the Chamber of Deputies Meanwhile, the moderate German parties have been decimated The Social Democrats are reduced to almost half their 1929 strength Henline also has no intention of serving in the government meaning any Coalition can only ever rule through a minority cabinet masa reeks gamble on choosing not to ban him has backfired The parliamentary system of this young democracy is undeniably still intact, but a shadow has been cast over it Massery formerly abdicates in December with banished just about being approved as successor Immediately he sets about drawing up plans to guard his country against the rising Nazi menace that now has so much support at home since 1933 Czechoslovakia has been the only functioning democracy in Central and Eastern Europe And in many ways it has lived up to the promises made for it by Masaryk and Benes It’s democratic culture has been relatively healthy and its people peaceful It could even be said that it captures all the ideals of the post-war settlement promising a new Europe made up of free nation-states But it is equally true that from its creation its second largest population has been resentful that it has been forced to live in such a state the bitterness of the SU dayton’s has been simmering away beneath the surface from the beginning and the cataclysmic worldwide changes of the 1930s have now brought them to the boiling point time will tell if this young democracy Will be able to guard against the Nazi threat from both without and within If you’d like to learn about another state born from the ashes of the austro-hungarian Empire and all the difficulties that entail then Check out sorry check out our two-parter on interwar Yugoslavia. You can click on the first episode Right about here come in any minute now our patron of the week is Sean Facel Oh it is because of our patreon subscribers that we can continue making quality Historical content such as this so do like Sean and subscribe to us at or at time goes TV And remember guys even in the darkest times You can still always do this put us a mouse bunny yesterday Admiral people You could That’s what I mean Nice letter

Maurice Vega

100 Responses

  1. The year is 1935 CE. Central Europe is entirely dominated by Authoritarians and Fascists. Well not entirely! One small country of indomitable Czechs and Slovaks still holds out for democracy. And life is not easy for the German Nazis who garrison the towns and villages in Bohemia and Moravia…

    One thing in this episode might go unnoticed. It is how important it is to note that the term Sudeten German has only become widespread after WWI. It shows us how the delicate balance of ethnic groups has been upset after the Great War.  

    Before 1918, these same people felt comfortable called themselves Bohemian or Moravian. On the other side of the border that now divides Czechoslovakia from Germany, Austria, Poland and Hungary Czech and Slovak speakers felt comfortable calling themselves for instance Carpathian, Silesian, or Bavarian. In only 17 years this regional sense of unity has now been eradicated. It's really easy to fall into the trap of the identity rhetoric of the time. To say that 'well, what did you expect? You forced people to be part of a country that wasn't theirs" it's an easy explanation for all of this conflict. 

    Well as we have often pointed out it wasn't that simple. Fanned by identity politics on all sides, the borders have become fevering soars that are spreading infection into all of Europe. It is a disease that now threatens to develop into sepsis for the whole European continent. And think of this; borders are nothing but lines on maps, things invented arbitrarily in people's minds… isn't it remarkable how we as a species can invent our own demise?

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  2. Yeah, yeah, self determination for everybody except the Germans. I guess Austrian multiculturalism must be the answer then! Ah, oh, maybe not!
    As predicted, this is 100% the Allied POV, nothing else is possible in the EU. WW1 was much better, as in even-handed.

  3. Your series is getting so close to the Second World War it starts to worry me about how long this series would last. Keep up the good work!

  4. czechoslovakia = one of the coolest countries ever. i as a slovak am proud of being born in czechoslovakia (despite it´s totalitarian socialist regime after WWII…). i presume to say there are no better relations between two nations than those between czechs and slovaks.

    btw, the picture of masaryk with karel capek (one of world´s best novelists) is iconic. 🙂

  5. Love the set. We liked the artwork so much we bought prints, had them framed and the are hung on the wall of our house. Good job team. I for one would love to see a show describing the features of the room. That stove is fantastic. I love the lamp to our right with the three (two illuminated) lamps under the bell jar.

  6. Very good! Mostly to the point. Decent Czech pronunciation 🙂 Did you get a special training for that?
    Only few remarks – you overstressing the Czech as Slavs. Czech sees themselves and Czech, not Slavs; it's a linguistic group, Czech language happens to be in this group. Same way as English is a Germanic language; that does not make Brits feel to be Germanic or even Germans.
    The conflict was between Germans and Czech and not between Germans and "Slavs". The pan-slavism pop out several times in the Czech history, like in 1848 revolution, but it was always a minority stream. One big exception – Dr Kramář. Yes, he was a total Russophile, he spoke Russian fluently, alongside German, French and English; and a Russian wife. And also many business dealings with Russia, so his Russophilia might not have been necessary from idealistic reasons only.

  7. I have to commend Indy's pronounciation of the Czech names. Thank you & the team for the effective effort. The Ř must have been quite a challenge 😀 Also thank you for your reproduction of our part in the dark and bloody history of European interwar years. Shall the fallen from any of the sides never be forgotten, and I am glad that nowadays all the disputes are settled, and that we can now live and work together in peace and affluence with our neighbours in other Western nations, free from the anxiousness regarding whomever borders. Shall we never forget at what costs we have achieved this luxury, and shall we always remain and live in understanding of each others' sins and penitence, as the common and mutual European family. Long live the peace of the European nations!

  8. Czech German fascist party DNSAP actually predates the the Hiltler's own fascist party. DNSAP, that is Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei was founded in 1919. And now look closely to the name, and to the abbreviation. Doesn't it sound somewhat familiar? Like say much more infamous NSDAP; the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei? Founded a year later. Well, it's speculated that this might be not a coincidence. Hitler might have take liking of the name, and just by swapping word order of "Nationalsozialistische" and "Deutsche" named his own party. It is even speculated that he might have been present on some of their early meetings. Duchcov, where the party was founded, is just a stone throw from the German border.

  9. No beer?!?!

    gasp Alright, everybody. We'll take care of this. Being the axes, get the hammers!

    No, no, wait a minute! I just met a nice German man said he's gonna change our lives forever. He just gave me a zillion marks!


  10. When you have a sizable minority and its "mother country" much larger and right next door, there is going to be trouble at even the slightest hint of of inequality or some kind of perceived slight. In fact, even without such "incentives" the trouble is likely. The minority will inevitably be pulled toward the adjacent motherland, classic irredentism. The historical precedents are too many to count and the problem continues today in many places. The fact that Switzerland and you might say Finland has survived it is proof of how much time, effort and unique conditions are required. Consistent prosperity also helps.

  11. "All of Czechoslovakia belongs to the Reich!" -50 political power and delaying Hungarian entry into the Axis for two more years. But my borders are clean!

  12. None of pre war history books or documentaries explain the reasons and events leading to German invasion of Sudetenland.
    Chamberlain actions keeping peace at any cost makes more sense. History has hidden Czechoslovakian governments harsh treatment of Germans.

  13. Interesting fact Edvard Beneš was Member of the national socialist party of Czechoslovakia. This party originally was created during Austria-Hungary and predates Germany parties with similar name. After fall of the Communism in 1989 party was recreated and exists to this day.

  14. Another fine documentary. Thank you Indy. The tragedy is that people do not grasp the simple truth that politics is violence and political government is the bane of humanity; it is not Christian. Voting is an act of violence. In Amerika when lizzie "Poacahontas" warren talks about abolishing the Electoral College she is distracting from the root cause of the problems and only dealing with symptoms and that will not cure the "patient."

    These documentaries reveal so much simple truth if only people will listen and think and avoid the tramp of petty emotionalism spewed by politicians. The first casualties of emotions are reason/logic and morality.

  15. The people who started WW1 threw humankind 100 years back. And the post WW1 treaties added to the misery. Creating these hopeless small weak countries was indeed a terrible idea. And countries based on ethnicity are another dumb idea. Ordinary people are much better off in a big strong country, like Rome under Augustus.

  16. Another great video thank you Indy! I just got back from a tour of the Great War battlefields of Northern France.

    This is the first time we have seen indy with half a glass of beer. What happened to the other half? 🙂

  17. hmmm I wonder what else can Indy say in my language 😀 well since you did (with Joakim ofc) an entire episode in Swedish on Sabaton History, would be cool if you did the same in Czech 😀

  18. Mazaryk was important, as Pilsudski, Mannerheim and Horty, in deciding his country's path but i doubt democracy come to life by single persons. Urbanization, educational and economic levels and other socioeconomic factors and cultural traditions steaming from the Austro-Hungarian period, must have been more important for Czechoslovakia staying a democracy during the Inter-war period.

  19. Why is the photo of President Manuel L. Quezon of the Philippine Commonwealth being sworn in is used to depict the successor to the ailing Czech President Tomas Masaryk?

  20. This is so good. I learn so freaking much every single time I tune into this channel. So much I didn't understand about inter war Europe is being solved in my head thanks to Indy and Co.

  21. Czechoslovakia's diplomatical situation was very complicated: though they were in theory allied to both USSR and France, the alliance was somewhat weird as It estipulated that USSR would only act after France does act, and France was also tied by the Entente with the British, so at the end, the functioning of this alliance is all depending on the British.

  22. 1935 was also the year Prontosil, the first effecttive mass-market antibiotic was developed, which was to have a massive effect on WW2 and demographics.

  23. "Longstanding russophilism"….

    Oh boy, this is going to end up going great. I foresee that and their democratic tendencies leading to a great relationship with their example and no chance of occupations in the future resulting from their example and overlord either refusing to help or thinking a puppet is more useful than an ally.

  24. As a Czech, I must admit, I have deranged pleasure from seeing 1940 pictures of Czech-made LT-35s and LT-38s tanks conquering France.
    Thanks for the epic betrayal, so Germany could absorb all our weaponry and industry…smooth moves France, smooth moves…

  25. @ TimeGhost History
    I must say I am left somewhat unsatisfied, that you have glossed over general Milan Rastislav Štefánik involvement in the creation of the Czechoslovakia as he was the one, who had all of Paris elites attention, fought in the war and was responsible for attaching the CS Legionaries into the French army. By the time of his tragic death (witch cause is disputed to this day) he was staunched supporter of federalized Czechoslovakia, not one ruled from centralized Prague.

    I am interested in seeing you tackle the Slovak call for independence and Beneš betrayal of both nations by giving the state to Hitler without a fight and cowardly fleeing to Britain. Or whether will dis dissolve into general statement of "Tiso BAD, Beneš dindu nothing" 😀

  26. Nice Czech. But how about some Slovak too? The poor Slovak part of Czechoslovakia always gets forgotten Je to strašne.

  27. Its kind of sad that our first president was pretty much our best president. On the other hand Masaryk was president philosopher, and thats as close as you can get to Plato´s philosopher king ideal.

  28. Beer always was and always will be the main unifying element for the Czech nation.
    As long as the golden blood flows in our veins, we shall prevail.
    Na zdraví!

  29. Good Job Indy, on this presentation, I guess there are time limitations but it would have been great to include Masaryk's trip to America and the support he received from US industrialists, and even the US president. Additionally, while you did mention the Czechoslovak Legion – their story is quite interesting as well in the founding of the Czechoslovak republic including the fact that they briefly controlled the TranSiberian railway and are suspected in taking a lot of Romanov gold, and their eventual return (going eastward by Vladivostok).

  30. @ 1:33 "Russophilism among the Czech and Slovak peoples"
    Poland looks on knowingly: "Let's see what you think after several decades of Muscovite occupation."

  31. That's cute…France seems to offer support to every little nation Germany may want something from. This ignores the fact that France militarily could NOT have won the first world war without the support of all of her allies. I just find it funny how up its own backside France at this post war phase is. To basically threaten Germany at every turn it can. Acting as if it had won the war solely on its own machismo. Come world war two, I think they lose that self view. Hell, before the war actually begins even.

  32. Indy, can we have a 1935 about the the death of queen Astrid of Belgium and the problems in Belgian politics that period and beyond?

  33. At 4:48 – ".. the Allies are reluctant to let the region balkanize"

    It's nice to see the term "balkanization" be applied to the balkans when they are about to be balkanized 🙂

  34. Who is to blame for the fact that the Eastern borders were not guaranteed by the Locarno agreements? Many historians believe that Britain and France are to blame for this, which sought to direct German aggression against the USSR.

  35. I think that if the great powers had not intervened in the internal affairs of Czechoslovakia by signing the Munich Collusion in 1938, Czechoslovak democracy would have provided a successful solution of the internal problems of Czechoslovakia.

  36. Can we say that Czechoslovakia was created after WW1 at the request of the States and Britain as a weak country, subordinate to the States and Britain?

  37. I really enjoyed this episode Indy, very researched and quite ominous too. a small question for the future will you be dressing up as a Matador for the Spanish Civil War episode?

  38. I think, and correct me if I'm wrong, but the central theme to this discussion is, "Check yo self, before you wreck yo self?, no doubt.

  39. Gender equality.. that's something which other much larger countries didn't have even until a few years after WW2. For example in France women couldn't vote until 1945.

  40. Czechoslovakia = Czechia + Slovakia + Carpathian Ruthenia. And this video is only about Czechia and czechs. You mentioned Slovakia 1x and Carpathian Ruthenia 0x. And not a single word about Milan Rastislav Stefanik.

  41. Lol being shot down for wanting independence creates an illusion of victimhood… guess to say vile things like that is only acceptable when it comes to germans…

  42. Czechoslovakia (Czechia now) has Budweiser (ie "from Budweis", Ceske Budovak in Czech language). This is a really good beer.


    The dog piss the Americans know as Budweiser.

  43. The problem with the different treaties after WW1 was that they implemented western ideas of nationhood on Eastern Europe. The western nations is pretty special as they are nation states with pretty homogenic populatiions. There was and still is a bad understanding for the problems that might arise when setting up states in other parts of the world. This can also be seen during the decolonization and also during the creation of the Arab states.

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